概要

看了之前的文章Java日志体系总结后,相信大家对slf4j以及其他日志组件的关系有了一定理解。slf4j只是为日志的输出提供了统一接口,并没有具体的实现,就好像JDBC一样。那么,大家会不会好奇slf4j是怎么绑定/适配/桥接到log4j或者logback其他日志实现组件的呢?这篇文章为大家详细讲述。

适配过程原理

统计API接口,说明slf4j使用的是门面模式(Facade),然后我们就很容易猜测到大致的调用过程是,slf4j是通过自己的api去调用实现组件的api,这样来完成适配的。我们重点看看是怎么做到适配的。
源码基于slf4j-api.1.7.25

slf4j通用门面的实现

调用slf4j时我们都是使用它的api,首先我们需要获取它的logger
一般大家使用slf4j都是这样子的

import org.slf4j.Logger;
import org.slf4j.LoggerFactory;

private Logger logger = LoggerFactory.getLogger(LogTest.class);

getLogger

我们对getLogger()方法源码跟踪下去

public static Logger getLogger(Class<?> clazz) {
 Logger logger = getLogger(clazz.getName());
 if (DETECT_LOGGER_NAME_MISMATCH) {
 Class<?> autoComputedCallingClass = Util.getCallingClass();
 if (autoComputedCallingClass != null && nonMatchingClasses(clazz, autoComputedCallingClass)) {
 Util.report(String.format("Detected logger name mismatch. Given name: \"%s\"; computed name: \"%s\".", logger.getName(),
 autoComputedCallingClass.getName()));
 Util.report("See " + LOGGER_NAME_MISMATCH_URL + " for an explanation");
 }
 }
 return logger;
 }

 public static Logger getLogger(String name) {
 //获取logger的工厂来生成logger
 ILoggerFactory iLoggerFactory = getILoggerFactory();
 return iLoggerFactory.getLogger(name);
 }

从ILoggerFactory的名字上来看,这是一个接口,而它又可以生成到具体实际的logger,那我们应该猜测到这个ILoggerFactory会跟其他日志实现相关,但是例如log4j,自己的实现肯定不会关心slf4j的呀,所以应该由适配jar包,即slf4j-log4j12.jar来实现。
继续看代码

public static ILoggerFactory getILoggerFactory() {
 //从ILoggerFactory的状态可以看出,ILoggerFactory只会一次初始化
 if (INITIALIZATION_STATE == UNINITIALIZED) {
 synchronized (LoggerFactory.class) {
 //同步语句 + 双重判断,防止多次初始化
 //如果还没初始化,则进行初始化
 if (INITIALIZATION_STATE == UNINITIALIZED) {
 INITIALIZATION_STATE = ONGOING_INITIALIZATION;
 performInitialization();
 }
 }
 }
 switch (INITIALIZATION_STATE) {
 //初始化成功,即绑定成功,则从StaticLoggerBinder获取ILoggerFactory并返回
 case SUCCESSFUL_INITIALIZATION:
 return StaticLoggerBinder.getSingleton().getLoggerFactory();
 case NOP_FALLBACK_INITIALIZATION:
 return NOP_FALLBACK_FACTORY;
 case FAILED_INITIALIZATION:
 throw new IllegalStateException(UNSUCCESSFUL_INIT_MSG);
 case ONGOING_INITIALIZATION:
 return SUBST_FACTORY;
 }
 throw new IllegalStateException("Unreachable code");
}

//对ILoggerFactory的状态做说明
static final int UNINITIALIZED = 0; //没初始化
static final int ONGOING_INITIALIZATION = 1; //正在初始化
static final int FAILED_INITIALIZATION = 2; //初始化失败
static final int SUCCESSFUL_INITIALIZATION = 3; //初始化成功
static final int NOP_FALLBACK_INITIALIZATION = 4; //无日志实现

 

bind

performInitialization()方法看来是重点

private final static void performInitialization() {
 bind();
 if (INITIALIZATION_STATE == SUCCESSFUL_INITIALIZATION) {
 versionSanityCheck();
 }
}

bind()方法

private final static void bind() {
 try {
 Set<URL> staticLoggerBinderPathSet = null;
 if (!isAndroid()) {
 //找出可能绑定的日志的path,其实即StaticLoggerBinder.class文件
 staticLoggerBinderPathSet = findPossibleStaticLoggerBinderPathSet();
 //如果找出多个的话则打印错误信息。(等下会演示)
 reportMultipleBindingAmbiguity(staticLoggerBinderPathSet);
 }
 //通过获取单例来做初始化
 StaticLoggerBinder.getSingleton();
 INITIALIZATION_STATE = SUCCESSFUL_INITIALIZATION;
 //打印实际绑定的那个日志实现。(等下会演示)
 reportActualBinding(staticLoggerBinderPathSet);
 fixSubstituteLoggers();
 replayEvents();
 // release all resources in SUBST_FACTORY
 SUBST_FACTORY.clear();
 } catch (NoClassDefFoundError ncde) {
 String msg = ncde.getMessage();
 if (messageContainsOrgSlf4jImplStaticLoggerBinder(msg)) {
 INITIALIZATION_STATE = NOP_FALLBACK_INITIALIZATION;
 Util.report("Failed to load class \"org.slf4j.impl.StaticLoggerBinder\".");
 Util.report("Defaulting to no-operation (NOP) logger implementation");
 Util.report("See " + NO_STATICLOGGERBINDER_URL + " for further details.");
 } else {
 failedBinding(ncde);
 throw ncde;
 }
 } catch (java.lang.NoSuchMethodError nsme) {
 String msg = nsme.getMessage();
 if (msg != null && msg.contains("org.slf4j.impl.StaticLoggerBinder.getSingleton()")) {
 INITIALIZATION_STATE = FAILED_INITIALIZATION;
 Util.report("slf4j-api 1.6.x (or later) is incompatible with this binding.");
 Util.report("Your binding is version 1.5.5 or earlier.");
 Util.report("Upgrade your binding to version 1.6.x.");
 }
 throw nsme;
 } catch (Exception e) {
 failedBinding(e);
 throw new IllegalStateException("Unexpected initialization failure", e);
 }
}

StaticLoggerBinder类

findPossibleStaticLoggerBinderPathSet()方法
从hard code看重要性,org/slf4j/impl/StaticLoggerBinder.class就是slf4j日志适配的关键

//hard code
private static String STATIC_LOGGER_BINDER_PATH = "org/slf4j/impl/StaticLoggerBinder.class";

static Set<URL> findPossibleStaticLoggerBinderPathSet() {

 Set<URL> staticLoggerBinderPathSet = new LinkedHashSet<URL>();
 try {
 //获取LoggerFactory,即slf4j-apoi的类加载器
 ClassLoader loggerFactoryClassLoader = LoggerFactory.class.getClassLoader();
 Enumeration<URL> paths;
 //为null说明是由Bootstrap Classloader加载的,则转为App Classloader去加载
 if (loggerFactoryClassLoader == null) {
 paths = ClassLoader.getSystemResources(STATIC_LOGGER_BINDER_PATH);
 } else {
 //用跟slf4j一样的Classloader去加载
 paths = loggerFactoryClassLoader.getResources(STATIC_LOGGER_BINDER_PATH);
 }
 while (paths.hasMoreElements()) {
 URL path = paths.nextElement();
 staticLoggerBinderPathSet.add(path);
 }
 } catch (IOException ioe) {
 Util.report("Error getting resources from path", ioe);
 }
 return staticLoggerBinderPathSet;
}

从类加载器的用法说明,org/slf4j/impl/StaticLoggerBinder.class要跟slf4j-api.jar包在同一个类加载器中,一般来说即要求放在同一路径下比较稳妥,当然也可以通过-classpath来指定。

前面我们已经猜测org/slf4j/impl/StaticLoggerBinder应该是由各种适配器来实现的,我们来看看

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在IDE的类搜索,可以找到两个StaticLoggerBinder

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调试刚刚的源码,可以看到找到了两个StaticLoggerBinder.class文件

那是因为我本机依赖了

<dependency>
 <groupId>ch.qos.logback</groupId>
 <artifactId>logback-classic</artifactId>
 <version>${logback.version}</version>
</dependency>

<dependency>
 <groupId>org.slf4j</groupId>
 <artifactId>slf4j-log4j12</artifactId>
 <version>${slf4j.version}</version>
</dependency>

所以只是看到logback和log4j的适配器包。slf4j是对每一种日志实现都有对应的一个适配实现。适配器包的具体内容我们等下再看。(PS:这不是一个好的依赖配置,等下会说)
到这里我们已经找到了StaticLoggerBinder类了,StaticLoggerBinder是由各自的slf4j适配器包提供的。
这里有个trick,既然StaticLoggerBinder在slf4j-api有,也在其他logback-classic或slf4j-log4j12有,那么怎么确保JVM只加载到适配器包中的StaticLoggerBinder?其实看看slf4j代码的pom.xml就发现,答案是打包时是没有StaticLoggerBinder打进去的,这样slf4j-api.jar包是没有StaticLoggerBinder类的,JVM在找类时只会找到其他jar包的StaticLoggerBinder。

我们刚刚的源码到bind()方法的这一句

StaticLoggerBinder.getSingleton();


这一句其实已经是调用适配包的代码,我们将会看看logback和log4j对应StaticLoggerBinder类的代码。

对logback适配实现

从上面的依赖我们看出,为什么slf4j对logback的适配是在logback-classic.jar包呢?logback-classic应该是logback的核心包才对,不应该关心slf4j的。那是因为slf4j和logback是同一个作者,所以才说logback是天然集成slf4j的。

我们看看logback-classic.jar中的StaticLoggerBinder

static {
 SINGLETON.init();
}
public static StaticLoggerBinder getSingleton() {
 return SINGLETON;
}
void init() {
 try {
 try {
 new ContextInitializer(defaultLoggerContext).autoConfig();
 } catch (JoranException je) {
 Util.report("Failed to auto configure default logger context", je);
 }
 // logback-292
 if (!StatusUtil.contextHasStatusListener(defaultLoggerContext)) {
 StatusPrinter.printInCaseOfErrorsOrWarnings(defaultLoggerContext);
 }
 contextSelectorBinder.init(defaultLoggerContext, KEY);
 initialized = true;
 } catch (Exception t) { // see LOGBACK-1159
 Util.report("Failed to instantiate [" + LoggerContext.class.getName() + "]", t);
 }
}

上面的就是logback的初始化了。

public ILoggerFactory getLoggerFactory() {
 if (!initialized) {
 return defaultLoggerContext;
 }

 if (contextSelectorBinder.getContextSelector() == null) {
 throw new IllegalStateException("contextSelector cannot be null. See also " + NULL_CS_URL);
 }
 return contextSelectorBinder.getContextSelector().getLoggerContext();
}

getLoggerFactory()方法会返回logback的LoggerContext,而LoggerContext是继承slf4j的ILoggerFactory的,这样就适配到slf4j。

Logger是从LoggerFactory取出的。
看看LoggerContext的getLogger()方法

public final Logger getLogger(final Class<?> clazz) {
 return getLogger(clazz.getName());
}

@Override
public final Logger getLogger(final String name) {

 if (name == null) {
 throw new IllegalArgumentException("name argument cannot be null");
 }

 // if we are asking for the root logger, then let us return it without
 // wasting time
 if (Logger.ROOT_LOGGER_NAME.equalsIgnoreCase(name)) {
 return root;
 }

 int i = 0;
 Logger logger = root;

 // check if the desired logger exists, if it does, return it
 // without further ado.
 Logger childLogger = (Logger) loggerCache.get(name);
 // if we have the child, then let us return it without wasting time
 if (childLogger != null) {
 return childLogger;
 }

 // if the desired logger does not exist, them create all the loggers
 // in between as well (if they don't already exist)
 String childName;
 while (true) {
 int h = LoggerNameUtil.getSeparatorIndexOf(name, i);
 if (h == -1) {
 childName = name;
 } else {
 childName = name.substring(0, h);
 }
 // move i left of the last point
 i = h + 1;
 synchronized (logger) {
 childLogger = logger.getChildByName(childName);
 if (childLogger == null) {
 childLogger = logger.createChildByName(childName);
 loggerCache.put(childName, childLogger);
 incSize();
 }
 }
 logger = childLogger;
 if (h == -1) {
 return childLogger;
 }
 }
}

这里涉及了logback很多逻辑,我们不太需要理会。这里主要看logback的Logger其实是继承了slf4j的Logger,这样就适配到slf4j。

对log4j配置实现

看了logback的适配,就猜到log4j的也差不多
slf4j-log4j12的StaticLoggerBinder

private StaticLoggerBinder() {
 loggerFactory = new Log4jLoggerFactory();
 try {
 @SuppressWarnings("unused")
 Level level = Level.TRACE;
 } catch (NoSuchFieldError nsfe) {
 Util.report("This version of SLF4J requires log4j version 1.2.12 or later. See also http://www.slf4j.org/codes.html#log4j_version");
 }
 }

 public ILoggerFactory getLoggerFactory() {
 return loggerFactory;
 }

Log4jLoggerFactory()是继承了slf4j的ILoggerFactory。继续看getLogger方法。

public Logger getLogger(String name) {
 Logger slf4jLogger = loggerMap.get(name);
 if (slf4jLogger != null) {
 return slf4jLogger;
 } else {
 org.apache.log4j.Logger log4jLogger;
 if (name.equalsIgnoreCase(Logger.ROOT_LOGGER_NAME))
 log4jLogger = LogManager.getRootLogger();
 else
 log4jLogger = LogManager.getLogger(name);

 Logger newInstance = new Log4jLoggerAdapter(log4jLogger);
 Logger oldInstance = loggerMap.putIfAbsent(name, newInstance);
 return oldInstance == null ? newInstance : oldInstance;
 }
}

这里又是把log4j的Logger包装成slf4j的Logger,适配到slf4j。

图解

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画了个图总结一下上面代码说的类关系,大家感受一下。

总结

slf4j的适配原理是通过适配包的org/slf4j/impl/StaticLoggerBinder来做转承,适配包通过继承和使用slf4j-apiILoggerFactoryLogger来完成适配。
在最新的版本(我看的是1.8.0)已经改为使用Java的SPI机制来实现,StaticLoggerBinder类已经不用了,改为SLF4JServiceProvider,这样就真正的面向接口编程了,不用打包时忽略StaticLoggerBinder。

参考资料

Slf4j源码解析 - 无底层日志实现框架时的执行流程
Java日志-SLF4J使用与源码分析